Posted by / 17-Jul-2016 11:46


methodologies in rat and mouse retina, we have demonstrated that there are distinct waves of genesis of the two major bipolar cell types, with cone bipolar genesis preceding rod bipolar genesis.

This Review highlights key examples of how developmental specification dictates organization of motor circuit connectivity and thereby controls movement.

First author Kristy Spalding and colleagues capitalized on this relatively rapid decline in C14 to develop their dating method.

Mammalian motor behavior is enabled by a hierarchy of interleaved circuit modules constructed by interneurons in the spinal cord, sensory feedback loops, and bilateral communication with supraspinal centers.

Retinal bipolar cells comprise a diverse group of neurons.

Cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells are so named for their connections with cone and rod photoreceptors, respectively.


In this study, we have examined the birth order of rod and cone bipolar cells in the developing mouse and rat Using retroviral lineage analysis with the histochemical marker alkaline phosphatase, the percentage of cone and rod bipolar cells born on postnatal day 0 (P0), P4, and P6 were determined, based upon the well characterized morphology of these cells in the adult rat retina.